Изменения на рынке логистических услуг, созданные тенденциями глобализации

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Trends of globalization

People around the world become more concentrated to each other than ever before. Information, finance and etc. move around the world faster than ever. Products produced in a most remote corner of the globe are now available to the rest of the world. It is much easier for people to travel, communicate, exchange information and do business worldwide. This whole phenomenon is called globalization. Spurred on in the past by merchants, explores, colonialists and internationalists, globalization has, in more recent times, been increasing rapidly due to explosive evolution in communications, information and transport technologies. It has also been affected by trade liberalization, logistics internationalization and financial market deregulation.

Globalization, as a process itself, year by year leaves increasingly deeper traces in world’s economics development. Friedman (2008) has an opinion that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse. The author states that the pace of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice. Palmer (2004) defines globalization as “the diminution or elimination of state–enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result.

The globalization process has been recognized as one of the main underlying forces impacting global logistics service providers (Lemoine, 2005). The last few decades have seen a steady growth of international trade and international transport. The main driving forces behind this growth are worldwide growth of the global economy and relaxation of trade barriers. Of course this growth is not evenly spread around the globe and sometimes disruptions can be observed caused by incidental factors such as local economic crises, weather conditions, and political incidents. It is important to understand the mechanism behind this development and, furthermore, to seek to assess the consequences of these mechanisms on global transportation systems, global economies, and their level of environmental sustainability. As a result of globalizations’ input to global logistics system, (Pesut, 2009) notices that:

•Global logistics commonly considered as one of driving forces of economic growth and social development

•Transport is central and functions as an enabling mechanism

•Freight transport services have become more critical

•Accommodating new technologies, markets and organizational structures requires changes

•Need for greater efficiencies has made urgent the need for more “seamless” transport market in which delays in freight movements are minimized and choices of efficient route or mode combination are unhindered by national or modal boundaries

Caldwell (2002) states that: “global market logistics rely heavily on the performance of infrastructure owned and operated by the public sector. Understanding the motivation of global logistics decisions and their local implications is a critical point of departure for a national or multinational effort on fostering trade. Identifying freight bottlenecks, solving them, and establishing market conditions that provide free access should be an important focus of regional, state, national, and international planning or policy efforts”

Global logistics as a process is very flexible and easy variable, because it could be influenced by several of economical, social and political aspects (see Figure 1):

To our opinion all these aspects mentioned above left very deep traces in whole logistics service market. We think that the most significant accelerators of making changes in global logistics service market are progress in technology, changes in time value and growing global competition.

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