Akhmadeev A.V., Kalimullina L.B. The situation in Russia with the use of psychoactive substances is becoming worse. This points to the fact that the main attention should be paid to the prevention, timely identifying with the help of diagnostic methods, risk groups. Great assistance in the development of preventive measures may have the results of experimental research with the use of valid models of animals. We have studied the peculiarities of behavioral reactions in rats who prefer
alcohol (PA) and do not prefer alcohol (NA) before and after the action of the stressor, the analysis of content and metabolism of biogenic amines and structural and quantitative characteristics in the Amygdala in the PA and NA rats.In this work, we used 2 groups of rats (PA and NA, males and females, adult age) which were obtained from the original population of WAG/Rij rats line after genotyping of the locus of Taq 1A DRD2, crossing homozygous animals and identify in a subsequent preferences of alcohol in a test of two bowls (Borisova and co-authors, 1999). The severity of the preferences of alcohol in rats with genotype A1/A1 was different, therefore, to obtain offspring from these rats were selected individuals with a pronounced PA in the preliminary experiment. In the process rats were placed in separate cells and within two weeks spent forced alcoholization of 10% ethanol consumed with registration of the means of subsistence, and in the third week in the cells put two bowls - one with 10% ethanol, and the other with water. For obtaining offspring were used males and females who preferred to drink alcohol and have a high rate of rise of the quantities of consumed alcohol. In the present study used the fourth generation of the PA rats. The experiment on the study of behavioral reactions of the rats before and after the stressor was conducted in three stages: -1 stage of the PA and NA rats tested in a round open field (OP), which has three sectors (central, intermediate and peripheral) and in the elevated cross labyrinth (ECL) for 5 days; 2 stage - the rats were subjected to audiogenic stimulation (according to the methodology Kuznetsova and co-authors, 2000) for 5 days; stage 3 - re-testing in the OP and ECL within 5 days. The content of biogenic amines and their metabolites in the Amygdala determined by HPLC (Akvilon, Russia) with spectrophotometric detection (UVV-104 M). Structural and quantitative characteristics of Amygdala studied at cytoarchitectonic preparations, stained for Nissl. Measurement of the area was carried out on Amygdala`s microphotographs which images are exported to a computer and analyzed using of the program JmageJ 1.38 (USA). Calculated the absolute and per unit area of the Amygdala, statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 6.0. On the basis of the conducted research it is shown that the PA rats have peculiarities of the manifestation of anxiety, caused by the increased content in the Amygdala dopamine and norepinephrine. This, according to the literature, can lead to increased release of CRH-synthesizing neurons of Amygdala. The results of structural and quantitative analysis carried out with the side hemisphere and sex of animals, the revealed asymmetry of Amygdala in male and female PA rats, in contrast to NA rats. In male PA rats area of Amygdala more in the left hemisphere, while females PA rats - in the right. These data provide a theoretical basis for the use of neuroimaging techniques to identify persons with risk of appearance the disease of addiction.