Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com The high ecosensitivity of a child organism during growth allowes to consider child somatic development as the significant marker of the stress level. To evaluate somatic specificity in connection with the high level of exogenous stress two samples of children aged 3-7, examined in 2005-06 in ecologically contrastive Moscow districts, are used. The total number of children is over 900. Anthropometric programme includes longitudinal skeletal parameters and diameters, skinfolds, body' and extremeties' girths, body mass. The high level of anthropogenic stress in ecologically unfavourable southern districts of Moscow megalopolis leads to some skeletal retardation of preschool children combined with the significant increase of the fat level as compared to ecologically favourable eastern districts. Such somatic specificity is more evident in girls, which may be interpreted as exhaustion of adaptive resourses and desadaptation of the child organism in the conditions of technogenous stresses of modern megalopolis.
To evaluate the growth processes in connection with the high level of endogenous stress we used the sample of Moscow preschool children aged 3-7 with serious forms of nephrological illness of different origin. The control group is healthy children of the same age, both groups examined in 1980. The sample of sick children compared to healthy is characterized by some retardation of body and leg length, acromial diameter, thigh girth
through the interval 3-7 years. The subscapula skinfold on the contrary has significantly higher levels as compared to the control group. The retardation of growth is less evident in girls compared to boys.
Thus the increase of both exogenous and endogenous stress, as revealed in our study, leads to some retardation of skeletal and muscle development combined with the increase of adipose tissue levels in preschool children, and the sensitivity to stress has sex differences.