Российская академия наук


DEVELOPING ELEMENTARY FORMS OF TIME PERCEPTION AS A BASIS FOR OVERCOMING SCHOOL DIFFICULTIES



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DEVELOPING ELEMENTARY FORMS OF TIME PERCEPTION AS A BASIS FOR OVERCOMING SCHOOL DIFFICULTIES

Efimova V.L., Efimov O.I.

Children’s Neurological Center Prognoz, Saint Petersburg, Russia; prefish@ya.ru


The elementary forms of time perception include living immediately through short time intervals and perceiving sequences (construction of rows). Normally children acquire these forms without any special training. Then, using training and experience, complex ways of time perception are acquired, when children learn to compare their subjective time sensations with various conventional measures. Thus time notions appear.

Children with school difficulties are known to often form time notions incorrectly. This incorrectness is very hard to be pedagogically corrected.

With primary school pupils such incorrectness may be manifested as children being unable to memorize the weekdays, months, the succession of letters in the alphabet, to reproduce a simply rhythm, to repeat a two-component instruction. An older schoolchild may exhibit a range of problems: from difficulties with orientation in time by the hours to an inability to cohesively lay down their thoughts orally or in writing.



The published data as well as our experimental data demonstrate that many children with school difficulties have incorrect elementary forms of time perception which are normally acquired during the first months of life.

We assumed that a full development of elementary forms of time perception in ontogenesis is the foundation for forming an ability to study, for no arbitrary activity can be imagined outside time. Thus, training the brain’s ability to control time can become the basis for assisting children with school difficulties.

Practical work with children in the Prognoz centers using Fast ForWord®, Interactive Metronome®, Tomatis® programs aimed at developing the brain’s ability to control time on a millisecond level has confirmed our assumptions. These trainings improve the brain’s ability to process and order information in time, which in many things ensures a new quality of movements, responses, speech, an ability to predict events. This leads to improved performance in all school disciplines.



Using these methodologies has also been efficient in work with children having severe development disorders (alalia, autistic spectrum development disorders, mental retardation).

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