Federal state budgetary institution of science Emanuel Institute of biochemical physics of RAS, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
At the present time there was an acute problem of assessment of remote consequences of artificial daily lighting for the human eye. This is due to the fact that now the great mass of people are constantly working under artificial light, and in the coming years in many countries it is expected the transition to a new and unknown for the eyes of the energy-saving lamps. In 2012, by experts of the Scientific Committee of the European Commission (SCENIR), as well as the French Agency for the protection of health (ANSES) carried out an analytical study for the assessment of possible risks for the health to new artificial light sources of light (halogen lamp, compact fluorescent lamp, white LED's) and came to the next conclusions:
1. The most urgent attention, in light of the safety for the eyes, require lamp with excess blue emission which certainly dangerous to the retinal pigment epithelium, for her photoreceptors and for ганглиозных cells which responsible for the daily circadian rhythms. Increased sensitivity of the retinal pigment epithelium to the blue light is the basis of many age-related diseases of the retina, in the first for age macular degeneration of the retina. The main cause for concern is that the sources of light which made on the powerful white led, especially on the so-called cold LED,s.
2. Different groups of population have different predisposition to losses of view, associated with the highly level of light in the blue region. To high-risk groups include children up to 15 years, because their lenses are to a half to two times more transparent to blue light than lenses adults, So the cumulative daily light doses of subthreshold retinal photodamage in one degree or another can affect the speed of development of age visual pathology. The second basic largest group of risk are the elderly because at the old age in their retinal pigment epithelium occurs mass accumulation of toxic pigment old age lipofuscin, which is activated by blue part of the spectrum. In particular, this applies to age macular degeneration patients. This is the most serious irreversible eye disease, which considerably in recent years are younger.
3. In the basis of existing standards in the light safety for the eyes (sunglasses, light sources, lasers, etc.) were layed the data of short-term ( up to 30 min.) and strong (1 - 10 J) light exposition the eyes of laboratory animals, which showed that the blue area lighting is 10 - 50 times more dangerous than the other part of the visible light. Such blue light through 1 - 2 days cause to partial loss of cells in retinal pigment epithelium by the mechanisms of photoactivation of lipofuscin. So the now existing standards allow to assess the only short-term eye risks to strong light expositions, but not to the normal room daily lighting. At the present time there are no basic
experimental data, which would enable to carry out long-term forecast of the visual losses as result of daily cumulative doses of artificial light sources. Consequently, there is no methodological base for forecasting long-term deferred eye risks.
4. To create a methodological basis for the assessment of deferred risks for the eyes of the European experts consider it necessary:
a) the carry out of epidemiological studying with uneven-age volunteers with the consideration transferred about their earlier of light biography.
b) to carry out of experiments with the short-lived laboratory animals with the extrapolations of data to kinetics of the ageing of the human eye. The experiments on animals will be correct only in case if their retina, also, as a man, has antioxidant and light filtration protection by lutein-zeaxantin, and also has the macular part of retina with high visual acuity. The retina of the traditional short-lived laboratory rodents: mice, rats, rabbits, are not suitable for such research, as they do not have any lutein-зеаксантиновой protection and macular area too. Monkeys, although their retina is almost similar to the retina of the human, for obvious reasons, are not suitable for such accelerated testing, and to much more massive.
The author of this report is currently carry out of one-years experiment with short-live animal model, with the relevant organization of the retina such as the domestic birds quail C.japonica with the content of these birds at white LED's illumination.
In addition to researches, connected with risks to the health of the eyes, the European experts recommend the hygiene research on dependence of visual capacity from the spectral energy distribution of artificial lighting sources.
Exept the of eyes risks, the European experts have also noted the possible risks of skin cancer associated with hard ultraviolet exposition at defective compact fluorescent lamps with micro-cracks in the micro-cracks in the phosphorus coating.