Российская академия наук


METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STUDYING OF ACTION OF PSYCHOTROPIC PREPARATIONS IN PRE-CLINICAL RESEARCHES



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METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STUDYING OF ACTION OF PSYCHOTROPIC PREPARATIONS IN PRE-CLINICAL RESEARCHES

Nikolskaya K.A., Kondashevskaya M.V.

Биологический факультет Московского государственного университета им. М.В. Ломоносова, Москва, Россия, nikol@neurobiology.ru


In the experimental psychopharmacology, researchers are increasingly raising the question of the validity of the low simple behavioral models, because different behavioral aspects are tested, usually in different experimental situations. In this case, interpretation of the data obtained is largely arbitrary and subjective character. In this regard, a systematic approach to avoid fragmentation of the experimental study, because the researcher is studying various aspects of animals behavior within one experimental situation. It was of interest to compare the effects of the psychotropic drugs on cognitive, psycho-emotional expression and neural processes by means simple and complex behavioral models in Wistar rats. There were used small and large dozes of piracetam (40 and 250 mg / kg), opilong -synthetic analogue of dermorphine (50 and 150 mkg / kg) and high-molecular heparin (0.36 mg / kg).

The comparative analysis has shown that the expression and direction of pharmacological effects depend on complexity of behavioural model. In case of simple model, the preparations, irrespective of a dose and their properties, had significant anxiolytic effects in all animals, increased motor activity and facilitate the perception of the problem by increasing the associative process. Use of complex behavioural model in free choice situation has shown high sensitivity to specific features of animals. Psychotropic preparations in the animals with expressed features of cognitive activity provoked a phenomenon steady dissociation between associative and integrative processes. Intensity of this phenomenon depended on the doze, and the trend of effects was determined by psycho-emotional typology of the animal. The main feature of the preparation effect was facilitation of the speed and efficiency of perception in excitable animals, while the same process made difficulties in inert rats. Integrative process, related to the formation of behavioral plane (habit), was going reliably more difficult in the excitable animals. The effect in inert rats depended on the properties of the preparation: opilong facilitated integrative process, pyracetam and heparin provided negative effect.

Based on the data obtained expressed the view that the complex behaviors that are close to human activity in cognitive terms, have a much greater predictive value in identifying pharmacological effects.


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