1Institute of Biomedical Problems RAS, Moscow, Russia; 2Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Moscow, Russia; Russia; firstname.lastname@example.org The space radiation is one of the basic factors that limited the possibility of the distant interplanetary space missions realization because these missions connected with the spacecraft overtravels outside the Earth magnetosphere. The space radiation in combination with others spaceflight factors can lead to the central nervous system disorders that underlying the cosmonauts operator activity. These disorders pose hazards to life of cosmonauts directly in spaceflight. The main danger is the galactic space rays – the protons with high energies and heavy ions with energies in wide range, up to ultrahigh energies 1020 MeV. It is very difficult to protect the cosmonauts from these high energies radiation in spacecraft conditions. It is necessary to take into account two basic aspects of space radiation effects modeling in the ground experiments: the longtime radiation influence that may be model by using quasi-chronic or fractioned gamma-irradiation and the principle of heavy ions influence that may be model in the charges particles accelerators.
Our experimental investigation of effects of longtime (during one month) fractioned gamma-irradiation, influence of the high energies protons and carbon ions 14С in doses 1-1,5 Gy on the rats behavior and monoamine metabolism in the different brain structures indicates that the influence of gamma-rays and protons provokes insignificant disorders in the rats learning processes and in brain monoaminergic systems activity. These developments were connect in a greater or lesser degree with emotional and motivation systems, but not with learning and memory processes. At the same time, the influence of carbon ions provokes the significant developments of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic brain systems activity. The decreasing of the dopamine and its metabolites in hypothalamus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were to the fullest extent. High sensitivity of prefrontal cortex was exhibits also in effects of gamma-irradiation and influence of protons. This is significant effect, because prefrontal cortex plays a key part in the emotional and motivation systems regulation and cognitive functions formation.